Support, Undermining, and Newcomer Socialization: Fitting in During the First 90 Days

    Published Online:

    While much organizational socialization occurs through interpersonal interactions, evidence regarding how these processes unfold over time has not been forthcoming. Results from a 14-wave longitudinal study with a sample of 264 organizational newcomers show that support of newcomers from coworkers and supervisors declines within the first 90 days of employment. Early support and undermining had more significant relationships with work outcomes assessed after 90 days of employment than did increases or decreases in support and undermining over that time period, suggesting early support and undermining may lay a foundation for later work outcomes. Proactive behavior partially mediated the relationship between support and more distal work outcomes, including withdrawal behaviors. Supervisor undermining was uniquely associated with higher turnover (exit) hazard.


    • Ashford S. J. , Black J. S. 1996. Proactivity during organizational entry: The role of desire for control. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81: 199–214. Google Scholar
    • Ashford S. J. , Blatt R. , Vande Walle D. 2003. Reflections on the looking glass: A review of research on feedback seeking in organizations. Journal of Management, 29: 773–799. Google Scholar
    • Ashforth B. E. 2012. The role of time in socialization dynamics. In Wanberg C. R. (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of socialization: 161–186. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
    • Ashforth B. E. , Sluss D. M. , Saks A. M. 2007. Socialization tactics, proactive behavior, and newcomer learning: Integrating socialization models. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70: 447–462. Google Scholar
    • Ayduk O. , Mendoza-Denton R. , Mischel W. , Downey G. , Peake P. K. , Rodriguez M. 2000. Regulating the interpersonal self: Strategic self-regulation for coping with rejection sensitivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79: 776–792. Google Scholar
    • Baron R. A. 1988. Negative effects of destructive criticism: Impact on conflict, self-efficacy, and task performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73: 199–207. Google Scholar
    • Bauer T. N. , Bodner T. , Erdogan B. , Truxillo D. M. , Tucker J. S. 2007. Newcomer adjustment during organizational socialization: A meta-analytic review of antecedents, outcomes, and methods. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 707–721. Google Scholar
    • Bauer T. N. , Erdogan B. , Liden R. C. , Wayne S. J. 2006. A longitudinal study of the moderating role of extraversion: Leader-member exchange, performance, and turnover during new executive development. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 298–310. Google Scholar
    • Bauer T. N. , Green S. G. 1998. Testing the combined effects of newcomer information seeking and manager behavior on socialization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83: 72–83. Google Scholar
    • Baumeister R. F. 2005. The social animal. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
    • Bennett R. J. , Robinson S. L. 2003. The past, present, and future of workplace deviance research. In Greenberg G. (Ed.), Organizational behavior: The state of the science (2nd ed.): 247–281. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Google Scholar
    • Blau G. , Andersson L. 2005. Testing a measure of instigated workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78: 595–614. Google Scholar
    • Bolino M. , Valcea S. , Harvey J. 2010. Employee, manage thyself: The potentially negative implications of expecting employees to behave proactively. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83: 325–345. Google Scholar
    • Boswell W. R. , Boudreau J. W. , Tichy J. 2005. The relationship between employee job change and job satisfaction: The honeymoon-hangover effect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 882–892. Google Scholar
    • Boswell W. R. , Shipp A. J. , Payne S. C. , Culbertson S. S. 2009. Changes in newcomer job satisfaction over time: Examining the pattern of honeymoons and hangovers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94: 844–858. Google Scholar
    • Boudens C. J. 2005. The story of work: A narrative analysis of workplace emotion. Organization Studies, 26: 1285–1306. Google Scholar
    • Bowling N. A. , Beehr T. A. 2006. Workplace harassment from the victim's perspective: A theoretical model and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 988–1012. Google Scholar
    • Bradt G. , Check J. A. , Pedraza J. 2006. The new leaders' 100-day action plan. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Google Scholar
    • Carver C. S. , Scheier M. F. 1998. On the self-regulation of behavior. New York: Cambridge University. Google Scholar
    • Chan D. 1998. The conceptualization and analysis of change over time: An integrative approach incorporating longitudinal mean and covariance structures analysis (LMACS) and multiple indicator latent growth modeling (MLGM). Organizational Research Methods, 1: 421–483. Google Scholar
    • Chan D. , Schmitt N. 2000. Interindividual differences in intraindividual changes in proactivity during organizational entry: A latent growth modeling approach to understanding newcomer adaptation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85: 190–210. Google Scholar
    • Chao G. T. , O'Leary-Kelly A. M. , Wolf S. , Klein H. J. , Gardner P. D. 1994. Organizational socialization: Its content and consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79: 730–743. Google Scholar
    • Chen G. , Ployhart R. E. , Cooper-Thomas H. C. , Anderson N. , Bliese P. D. 2011. The power of momentum: A new model of dynamic relationships between job satisfaction change and turnover intentions. Academy of Management Journal, 54: 159–181.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Chiaburu D. S. , Harrison D. A. 2008. Do peers make the place? Conceptual synthesis and meta-analysis of coworker effects on perceptions, attitudes, OCBs, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 1082–1103. Google Scholar
    • Cohen S. , Wills T. A. 1985. Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98: 310–357. Google Scholar
    • Cropanzano R. , James K. , Konovsky M. A. 1993. Dispositional affectivity as a predictor of work attitudes and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14: 595–606. Google Scholar
    • Dougherty T. W. , Turban D. B. , Callender J. C. 1994. Confirming first impressions in the employment interview: A field study of interviewer behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79: 659–665. Google Scholar
    • Duffy M. K. , Ganster D. C. , Pagon M. 2002. Social undermining in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 45: 331–351.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Edmondson A. 1999. Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 350–383. Google Scholar
    • Elfenbein H. A. 2008. Emotion in organizations. In Brief A. P.Walsh J. P. (Eds.), Academy of Management annals, vol. 1: 315–386. New York: Erlbaum. Google Scholar
    • Fisher C. D. 1986. Organizational socialization: An integrative review. In Ferris G. R.Rowland K. M. (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resource management, vol. 4: 101–145. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Google Scholar
    • Fisher C. D. , Ashkanasy N. M. 2000. The emerging role of emotions in work life: An introduction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21: 123–129. Google Scholar
    • Fredrickson B. L. 2001. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56: 218–226. Google Scholar
    • Frijda N. H. 1986. The emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
    • Goldberg L. R. 1999. A broad-bandwidth, public-domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In Mervielde I.Deary I. J.De Fruyt F.Ostendorf F. (Eds.), Personality psychology in Europe, vol. 7: 7–28. Tilburg, the Netherlands: Tilburg University Press. Google Scholar
    • Grandey A. A. , Tam A. P. , Brauburger A. L. 2002. Affective states and traits in the workplace: Diary and survey data from young workers. Motivation and Emotion, 26: 31–55. Google Scholar
    • Grant A. M. , Ashford S. J. 2008. The dynamics of proactivity at work. In Brief A.Staw B. (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, vol. 28: 3–34. Bingley, UK: Emerald. Google Scholar
    • Green D. P. , Goldman S. L. , Salovey P. 1993. Measurement error masks bipolarity in affect ratings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64: 1029–1041. Google Scholar
    • Griffin M. A. , Neal A. , Parker S. K. 2007. A new model of work role performance: Positive behavior in uncertain and interdependent contexts. Academy of Management Journal, 50: 327–347.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Gruman J. A. , Saks A. M. , Zweig D. I. 2006. Organizational socialization tactics and newcomer proactive behaviors: An integrative study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69: 90–104. Google Scholar
    • Hanisch K. A. , Hulin C. L. 1991. General attitudes and organizational withdrawal: An evaluation of a causal model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39: 110–128. Google Scholar
    • Herschcovis M. S. , Barling J. 2010. Toward a multi-foci approach to workplace aggression: A meta-analytic review of outcomes from different perpetrators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31: 24–44. Google Scholar
    • Hogg M. A. , Terry D. J. 2000. Social identity and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts. Academy of Management Review, 25: 121–140.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Jokisaari M. , Nurmi J. 2009. Change in newcomers' supervisor support and socialization outcomes after organizational entry. Academy of Management Journal, 52: 527–544.AbstractGoogle Scholar
    • Jones G. R. 1986. Socialization tactics, self-efficacy, and newcomers' adjustments to organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 29: 262–279.AbstractGoogle Scholar
    • Kammeyer-Mueller J. D. , Wanberg C. R. 2003. Unwrapping the organizational entry process: Disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 779–794. Google Scholar
    • Kammeyer-Mueller J. D. , Wanberg C. R. , Glomb T. M. , Ahlburg D. 2005. The role of temporal shifts in turnover processes: It's about time. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 644–658. Google Scholar
    • Kelly J. R. , Barsade S. G. 2001. Mood and emotions in small groups and work teams. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86: 99–130. Google Scholar
    • Lance C. E. , Vandenberg R. J. , Self R. M. 2000. Latent growth models of individual change: The case of newcomer adjustment. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 83: 107–140. Google Scholar
    • Lewin K. 1951. Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers. New York: Harper & Row. Google Scholar
    • McAllister D. J. 1995. Affect- and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 24–59.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Miller V. D. , Jablin F. M. 1991. Information seeking during organizational entry: Influences, tactics, and a model of the process. Academy of Management Review, 16: 92–120.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Miner A. G. , Glomb T. M. , Hulin C. 2005. Experience sampling mood and its correlates at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78: 171–193. Google Scholar
    • Moreland R. L. , Levine J. M. 2001. Socialization in organizations and work groups. In Turner M. E. (Ed.), Groups at work: Theory and research: 69–112. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Google Scholar
    • Morita J. G. , Lee T. W. , Mowday R. T. 1993. The regression-analog to survival analysis: A selected application to turnover research. Academy of Management Journal, 36: 1430–1464.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Morrison E. W. 1993. Longitudinal study of the effects of information seeking on newcomer socialization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78: 173–183. Google Scholar
    • Mowday R. T. , Steers R. M. , Porter L. W. 1979. The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14: 224–247. Google Scholar
    • Muthén L. K. , Muthén B. O. 2010. MPlus user's guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén. Google Scholar
    • Ng C. F. 2006. Academics telecommuting in open and distance education universities: Issues, challenges, and opportunities. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 7(2): 1–16. Google Scholar
    • Olsen D. 1993. Work satisfaction and stress in the first and third year of academic appointment. Journal of Higher Education, 64: 453–471. Google Scholar
    • Ostroff C. , Kozlowski S. W. J. 1992. Organizational socialization as a learning process: The role of information acquisition. Personnel Psychology, 45: 849–874. Google Scholar
    • Parker S. K. , Williams H. M. , Turner N. 2006. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 636–652. Google Scholar
    • Plutchik R. 1994. The psychology and biology of emotion. New York: Harper Collins. Google Scholar
    • Podsakoff P. M. , MacKenzie S. B. , Lee J. Y. , Podsakoff N. P. 2003. Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 879–903. Google Scholar
    • Rafaeli E. , Cranford J. A. , Green A. S. , Shrout P. E. , Bolger N. 2008. The good and bad of relationships: How social hindrance and social support affect relationship feelings in daily life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34: 1703–1718. Google Scholar
    • Reichers A. E. 1987. An interactionist perspective on newcomer socialization rates. Academy of Management Review, 12: 278–287.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Roznowski M. , Hanisch K. A. 1990. Building systematic heterogeneity into work attitudes and behavior measures. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36: 361–375. Google Scholar
    • Russell J. A. 1980. A circumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36: 1152–1168. Google Scholar
    • Russell J. A. , Ridgeway D. 1983. Dimensions underlying children's emotion concepts. Developmental Psychology, 19: 795–804. Google Scholar
    • Schein E. H. 1978. Career dynamics: Matching individuals and organizational needs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Google Scholar
    • Schein E. H. , Bennis W. 1965. Personal and organizational change via group methods. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
    • Scollon C. , Diener E. , Oishi S. , Biswas-Diener R. 2005. An experience sampling and cross-cultural investigation of the relation between pleasant and unpleasant affect. Cognition and Emotion, 19: 27–52. Google Scholar
    • Stallings M. , Dunham C. , Gatz M. , Baker L. , Bengtson V. L. 1997. Relationships among life events and psychological well-being: More evidence for a two-factor theory of well-being. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 16: 104–119. Google Scholar
    • Stohl C. 1986. The role of memorable messages in the process of organizational socialization. Communication Quarterly, 34: 231–249. Google Scholar
    • Tepper B. J. 2000. Consequences of abusive supervision. Academy of Management Journal, 43: 178–190.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Tetlock P. E. 1983. Accountability and the perseverance of first impressions. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46: 285–292. Google Scholar
    • Thoresen C. J. , Kaplan S. A. , Barsky A. P. , Warren C. R. , de Chermont K. 2003. The affective underpinnings of job perceptions and attitudes: A meta-analytic review and integration. Psychological Bulletin, 129: 914–945. Google Scholar
    • Van Dyne L. , LePine J. A. 1998. Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41: 108–119.LinkGoogle Scholar
    • Vinokur A. D. , Price R. H. , Caplan R. D. 1996. Hard times and hurtful partners: How financial strain affects depression and relationship satisfaction of unemployed persons and their spouses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71: 166–179. Google Scholar
    • Vinokur A. D. , Van Ryn M. 1993. Social support and undermining in close relationships: Their independent effects on the mental health of unemployed persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65: 350–359. Google Scholar
    • Wanberg C. R. , Kammeyer-Mueller J. D. 2000. Predictors and outcomes of proactivity in the socialization process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85: 373–385. Google Scholar
    • Wanous J. P. 1992. Organizational entry: Recruitment, selection, orientation, and socialization of newcomers (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Google Scholar
    • Watkins M. 2003. The first 90 days. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Google Scholar
    • Watson D. 2000. Mood and temperament. New York: Guilford Press. Google Scholar
    • Watson D. , Clark L. A. , McIntyre C. W. , Hamaker S. 1992. Affect, personality, and social activity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63: 1011–1025. Google Scholar
    • Weick K. E. 1995. Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
    • Weiss H. M. , Beal D. J. 2005. Reflections on effective events theory. In Ashkanasy N. M.Zerbe W. J.Härtel C. E. J. (Eds.), Research on emotion in organizations, vol. 1: 1–21. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Google Scholar
    • Weiss H. M. , Cropanzano R. 1996. Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. In Staw B. M.Cummings L. L. (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, vol. 18: 1–74. Greenwich., CT: JAI. Google Scholar
    Academy of Management
      Academy of Management
      100 Summit Lake Drive, Suite 110
      Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
      Phone: +1 (914) 326-1800
      Fax: +1 (914) 326-1900