Scholars in various disciplines have considered the causes, nature, and effects of trust. Prior approaches to studying trust are considered, including characteristics of the trustor, the trustee, and the role of risk. A definition of trust and a model of its antecedents and outcomes are presented, which integrate research from multiple disciplines and differentiate trust from similar constructs. Several research propositions based on the model are presented.

REFERENCES

  • Argyris C. A. 1994. Litigation mentality and organizational learning. In Sitkin S. B.Bies R. J. (Eds.), The legalistic organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Atwater L. E. 1988. The relative importance oi situational and individual variables in predicting leader behavior. Group and Organization Studies, 13: 290–310. Google Scholar
  • Axelrod R. 1984. The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books. Google Scholar
  • Barber B. 1983. The logic and limits of trust. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Google Scholar
  • Bateson P. 1988. The biological evolution of cooperation and trust. In Gambetta D. G. (Ed.), Trust: 14–30. New York: Basil Blackwell. Google Scholar
  • Bazerman M. H. 1994. Judgment in managerial decision making. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
  • Berscheid E. , Walster E. H. 1978. Interpersonal attraction (2nd ed.) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Google Scholar
  • Bierman H. , Bonini C. P. , Hausraan W. H. 1969. Quantitative analysis for business decisions (3rd ed.) Homewood. IL: Irwin. Google Scholar
  • Boss R. W. 1978. Trust and managerial problem solving revisited. Group and Organization Studies. 3: 331–342. Google Scholar
  • Boyle R. , Bonacich P. 1970. The development of trust and mistrust in mixed-motive games. Sociometry. 33: 123–139. Google Scholar
  • Butler J. K. 1983. Reciprocity of trust between professionals and their secretaries. Psychological Reports. 53: 411–416. Google Scholar
  • Butler J. K. 1991. Toward understanding and measuring conditions of trust: Evolution of a conditions of trust inventory. Journal of Management, 17: 643–663. Google Scholar
  • Butler J. K. , Cantrell R. S. 1984. A behavioral decision theory approach to modeling dyadic trust in superiors and subordinates. Psychological Reports, 55: 19–28. Google Scholar
  • Coleman I. S. 1990. Foundation of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
  • Conlon E. J. , Mayer R. C. 1994. The effect of trust on principal-agent dyads: An empirical investigation of stewardship and agency. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas, TX. Google Scholar
  • Cook J. , Wall T. 1980. New work attitude measures of trust, organizational commitment, and personal need nonfulfillment. Journal of Occupational Psychology. 53: 39–52. Google Scholar
  • Cummings L. L. 1983. Performance-evaluation Systems in context of individual trust and commitment. In Landy F. J.Zedrick S.Cleveland J. (Eds.). Performance measurement and theory: 89–93. Hillsdale, N.J: Earlbaum. Google Scholar
  • Dasgupta P. 1988. Trust as a commodity. In Gambetta D. G. (Ed.), Trust: 49–72. New York: Basil Blackwell. Google Scholar
  • Davis J. , Helms L. , Henkin A. B. 1989. Strategic conventions in organizational decision making: Applications from game theory. International Review of Modem Sociology. 19: 71–85. Google Scholar
  • Deutsch M. 1958. Trust and suspicion. Journal of Conflict Resolution. 2: 265–279. Google Scholar
  • Deutsch M. 1960. The effect of motivational orientation upon trust and suspicion. Hunan Relations, 13: 123–140. Google Scholar
  • Donaldson L. , Davis J. H. 1991. Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns. Australian Journal of Management. 16(1): 49–64. Google Scholar
  • Driscoll J. W. 1978. Trust and participation in organizational decision making as predictors of satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal. 21: 44–56.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Farnham A. 1989. The trust gap. Fortune, Dec. 4: 56–78. Google Scholar
  • Farris G. , Senner E. , Butterfield D. 1973. Trust, culture, and organizational behavior. Industrial Relations. 12: 144–157. Google Scholar
  • Friedland N. 1990. Attribution of control as a determinant of cooperation in exchange interactions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20: 303–320. Google Scholar
  • Frost T. , Stimpson D. V. , Maughan M. R.C 1978. Some correlates of trust. Journal of Psychology. 99: 103–108. Google Scholar
  • Gabarro J. 1978. The development of trust, influence, and expectations. In Athos A. G.Gabarro J. J. (Eds.), Interpersonal behavior: Communication and understanding in relationships: 290–303. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Google Scholar
  • Gambetta D. G. (Ed.). 1988. Can we trust trust? In Gambetta D. G. (Ed.), Trust: 213–237. New York: Basil Blackwell. Google Scholar
  • Giffin K. 1967. The contribution of studies of source credibility to a theory of interpersonal trust in the communication department. Psychological Bulletin, 68: 104–120. Google Scholar
  • Golembiewski R. T. , McConkie M. 1975. The centrality of interpersonal trust in group processes. In Cooper C. L. (Ed.), Theories of group processes, New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
  • Good D. 1988. Individuals, interpersonal relations, and trust. In Gambetta D. G. (Ed.), Trust: 131–185. New York: Basil Blackwell. Google Scholar
  • Granovetter M. 1985. Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91: 481–510. Google Scholar
  • Hart K. M. , Capps H. R. , Cangemi J. P. , Caillouet L. M. 1986. Exploring organizational trust and its multiple dimensions: A case study of General Motors. Organization Development Journal. 4(2): 31–39. Google Scholar
  • Hofstede G. 1980. Motivation, leadership, and organization: Do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics. 9(1): 42–63. Google Scholar
  • Hovland C. I. , Janis I. L. , Kelley H. H. 1953. Communication and persuasion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
  • Jackson S. E. , Alvarez E. B. 1992. Working through diversity as a strategic imperative. In Jackson S. (Ed.). Diversity in the workplace: 13–29. New York: Guilford Press. Google Scholar
  • James L. H. , Mulaik S. S. , Brett J. M. 1982. Causal analysis: Models, assumptions, and data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Jamieson D. , O'Mara J. 1991. Managing workforce 2000: Gaining the diversity advantage. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
  • Jensen M. C. , Meckling W. H. 1976. Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics. 3: 305–360. Google Scholar
  • Johnson-George C. , Swap W. 1982. Measurement of specific interpersonal trust: Construction and validation of a scale to assess trust in a specific other. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 43: 1306–1317. Google Scholar
  • Jones A. P. , James L. R. , Bruni J. R. 1975. Perceived leadership behavior and employee confidence in the leader as moderated by job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60: 146–149. Google Scholar
  • Kee H. W. , Knox R. E. 1970. Conceptual and methodological considerations in the study of trust. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 14: 357–366. Google Scholar
  • Kruglanski A. W. 1970. Attributing trustworthiness in supervisor-worker relations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6: 214–232. Google Scholar
  • Larson C. E. , LaFasto F. M. J. 1989. Teamwork: What must go right/what can go wrong. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Larzelere R. , Huston T. 1980. The dyadic trust scale: Toward understanding interpersonal trust in close relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42: 595–604. Google Scholar
  • Lawler E. 1992. The ultimate advantage: Creating the high-involvement organisation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
  • Lewis J. , Weigert A. 1985. Trust as a social reality. Social Forces, 63: 967–985. Google Scholar
  • Lieberman J. K. 1981. The litigious society. New York: Basic Books. Google Scholar
  • Luhmann N. 1988. Familiarity, confidence, trust: Problems and alternatives. In Gambetta D. G. (Ed.), Trust: 94–107. New York: Basil Blackwell. Google Scholar
  • March I. G. , Shapira Z. 1987. Managerial perspectives on risk and risk taking. Management Science, 33: 1404–1418. Google Scholar
  • McFall L. 1987. Integrity. Ethics, 98: 5–20. Google Scholar
  • Meyer J. W. 1983. Organizational factors affecting legalization in education. In Meyer J. W.Scott W. R. (Eds.), Organizational environments: Ritual and rationality: 217–232. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
  • Milgrom P. , Roberts J. 1992. Economics, organization and management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Google Scholar
  • Mishra A. K. In press. Organizational responses to crisis: The centrality of trust. In Kramer R. M.Tyler T. (Eds.), Trust in organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Moore S. F. , Shaffer L. S. , Pollak E. L. , Taylor-Lemcke P. 1987. The effects of interpersonal trust and prior common problem experience on common management. Journal of Social Psychology, 127: 19–29. Google Scholar
  • Newcomb T. M. 1956. The prediction of interpersonal attraction. American Psychologist, 11: 575–586. Google Scholar
  • Riker W. H. 1974. The nature of trust. In Tedeschi J. T. (Ed.), Perspectives on social power: 63–81. Chicago: Aldine. Google Scholar
  • Ring S. M. , Van de Ven A. 1992. Structuring cooperative relationships between organizations. Strategic Management Journal. 13: 483–498. Google Scholar
  • Rosen B. , Jerdee T. H. 1977. Influence of subordinate characteristics on trust and use of participative decision strategies in a management simulation. Journal of Applied Psychology. 62: 628–631. Google Scholar
  • Rotter J. B. 1967. A new scale tor the measurement of interpersonal trust. Journal of Personality, 35: 651–665. Google Scholar
  • Runkel P. J. , McGrath J. E. 1972. Research on human behavior: A systematic guide to method. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Google Scholar
  • Sabatelli R. M. , Buck R. , Dreyer A. 1983. Locus of control, interpersonal trust, and nonverbal communication accuracy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44: 399–409. Google Scholar
  • Schlenker B. , Helm B. , Tedeschi J. 1973. The effects of personality and situational variables on behavioral trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25: 419–427. Google Scholar
  • Scott C. L. 1980. Interpersonal trust: A comparison of attitudinal and situational factors. Human Relations, 33: 805–812. Google Scholar
  • Scott D. 1980. The causal relationship between trust and the assessed value of management by objectives. Journal of Management, 6: 157–175. Google Scholar
  • Sitkin S. B. , Bies R. J. 1994. The legalization of organizations: A multitheoretical perspective. In Sitkin S. B.Bies R. J. (Eds.), The legalistic organisation: 19–49. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Sitkin S. B. , Pablo A. L. 1992. Reconceptualizing the determinants of risk behavior. Academy of Management Review, 17: 9–38.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Sitkin S. B. , Roth N. L. 1993. Explaining the limited effectiveness of legalistic “remedies” lor trust/distrust. Organization Science, 4: 367–392. Google Scholar
  • Solomon L. 1960. The influence of some types of power relationships and game strategies upon the development of interpersonal trust. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61: 223–230. Google Scholar
  • Strickland L. H. 1958. Surveillance and trust. Journal of Personality. 26: 200–215. Google Scholar
  • Taylor R. G. 1989. The role of trust in labor-management relations. Organization Development Journal, 7: 85–89. Google Scholar
  • Wellins R. S. , Byham W. C. , Wilson J. M. 1991. Empowered teams: Creating self-direcfed work groups that improve quality, productivity, and participation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
  • Williamson O. E. 1975. Markets and hierarchies: Analysis and antitrust implications. New York: Free Press. Google Scholar
  • Zand D. E. 1972. Trust and managerial problem solving. Administrative Science Quarterly 17: 229–239. Google Scholar
Academy of Management
  Academy of Management
  555 Pleasantville Road, Suite N200
  Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510-8020, USA
  Phone: +1 (914) 326-1800
  Fax: +1 (914) 326-1900