Published Online:https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1998.926619

In this article we contend that trust can be conceptualized as four distinct and ordered forms—shallow dependence, shallow interdependence, deep dependence, and deep interdependence—determined by the nature of the interdependence between trusting parties. We argue that both the risks that trusting parties assume and the mechanisms for mitigating those risks emerge as a function of the form of interdependence in the relationship. By reviewing research in which trust is a central component, we illustrate the elements of this model and examine its implications.

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