Published Online:https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2016.0095

Contemporary organizations often struggle to create meaningful, sustainable changes. At the same time, relevant organizational research lacks an easily accessible consensus on basic change management processes and principles. One consequence is practitioner reliance on popular change models that more often cite expert opinion as their foundation rather than scientific evidence. This article reviews both key tenets of widely used practitioner-oriented change models and findings from scholarly research on organizational change processes to develop an integrative summary of the available evidence of what is known, contested, untested, and underused in change management. It identifies ten evidence-based steps in managing planned organizational change along with implications for research and practice.

REFERENCES

  • Ajzen I. 1991. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50: 179–211. Google Scholar
  • Alänge S., & Steiber A. 2009. The board’s role in sustaining major organizational change: An empirical analysis of three change programs. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 1: 280–293. Google Scholar
  • Amiot C. E., Terry D. J., Jimmieson N. L., & Callan V. J. 2006. A longitudinal investigation of coping processes during a merger: Implications for job satisfaction and organizational identification. Journal of Management, 32: 552–574. Google Scholar
  • Appelbaum S. H., Habashy S., Malo J. L., & Shafiq H. 2012. Back to the future: Revisiting Kotter’s 1996 change model. Journal of Management Development, 31: 764–782. Google Scholar
  • Armenakis A., & Harris S. G. 2009. Reflections: Our Journey in organizational change research and practice. Journal of Change Management, 9: 127–142. Google Scholar
  • Armenakis A. A., Harris S. G., & Feild H. S. 1999. Making change permanent: A model for institutionalizing change interventions. In W. A. PasmoreR. W. Woodman (Eds.), Research in organizational change and development, vol. 12: 97–128. New York: JAI Press. Google Scholar
  • Armstrong-Stassen M. 1994. Coping with transition: A study of layoff survivors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15: 597–621. Google Scholar
  • Ashford S. J. 1988. Individual strategies for coping with stress during organizational transitions. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 24: 19–36. Google Scholar
  • Astor T., Morales M., Kiefer D., & Repenning N. 2016. What problem are you trying to solve: An introduction to structured problem solving. MIT Report. http://mitsloan.mit.edu/shared/ods/documents/?DocumentID=2450. Google Scholar
  • Babalola M. T., Stouten J., & Euwema M. 2016. Frequent change and turnover intention: The moderating role of ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 134: 311–322. Google Scholar
  • Balogun J. 2003. From blaming the middle to harnessing its potential: Creating change intermediaries. British Journal of Management, 14: 69–83. Google Scholar
  • Bamford D., & Daniel S. 2005. A case study of change management effectiveness within the NHS. Journal of Change Management, 5: 391–406. Google Scholar
  • Barends E., Janssen B., ten Have W., & ten Have S. 2013. Effects of change interventions: What kind of evidence do we really have? Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 50: 28–33. Google Scholar
  • Barends E., & Rousseau D. M. 2018. Evidence-based management: How to use evidence to make better organizational decisions. London: Kogan Page. Google Scholar
  • Barends E., Villanueva J., Rousseau D. M., Briner R. B., Jepsen D. M., Houghton E., & ten Have S. 2017. Managerial attitudes and perceived barriers regarding evidence-based practice: An international survey. PLoS One, 12: e0184594. Google Scholar
  • Bartunek J. M., Rousseau D. M, Rudolph J., & Depalma J. 2006. On the receiving end: Sensemaking, emotion, and assessments of an organizational change initiated by others. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 42: 182–206. Google Scholar
  • Battilana J., & Casciaro T. 2012. Change agents, networks, and institutions: A contingency theory of organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55: 381–398.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Battilana J., & Casciaro T. 2013. Overcoming resistance to organizational change: Strong ties and affective cooptation. Management Science, 59: 819–836. Google Scholar
  • Battilana J., Gilmartin M., Sengul M., Pache A. C., & Alexander J. A. 2010. Leadership competencies for implementing planned organizational change. Leadership Quarterly, 21: 422–438. Google Scholar
  • Baum J. R., Locke E. A., & Kirkpatrick S. A. 1998. A longitudinal study of the relation of vision and vision communication to venture growth in entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83: 43–54. Google Scholar
  • Bednall T. C., Bove L. L., Cheetham A., & Murray A. L. 2013. A systematic review and meta-analysis of antecedents of blood donation behavior and intentions. Social Science and Medicine, 96: 86–94. Google Scholar
  • Beer M. 1980. Organization change and development: A systems view. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear. Google Scholar
  • Beer M. 2009. Sustain organizational performance through continuous learning, change and realignment. In E. A. Locke (ed.), Handbook of principles of organizational behavior (2nd ed.): 537–555. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  • Beer M., Eisenstat R. A., & Spector B. 1990. Why change programs do not produce change. Harvard Business Review, 68: 158–166. Google Scholar
  • Bellou V. 2007. Shaping psychological contracts in the public and private sectors: A human resources management perspective. International Public Management Journal, 10: 327–349. Google Scholar
  • Bennebroek Gravenhorst K. M., & Boonstra J. J. 1998. The use of influence tactics in constructive change processes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 7: 179–196. Google Scholar
  • Bernerth J. B., Armenakis A. A., Feild H. S., & Walker H. J. 2007. Justice, cynicism, and commitment: A study of important organizational change variables. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43: 303–326. Google Scholar
  • Bies R. J. 2013. The delivery of bad news in organizations. Journal of Management, 39: 136–162. Google Scholar
  • Bies R. J., & Moag J. S. 1986. Interactional justice: Communication criteria of fairness. In R. J. LewickiB. H. SheppardM. H. Bazerman (Eds.), Research on negotiations in organizations: 43–55. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Google Scholar
  • Bordia P., Hobman E., Jones C., Gallois V., & Callan J. 2004. Uncertainty during organizational change: Types, consequences, and management strategies. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18: 507–532. Google Scholar
  • Bordia P., Restubog S. L. D., Jimmieson N. L., & Irmer B. E. 2011. Haunted by the past: Effects of poor change management history on employee attitudes and turnover. Group & Organization Management, 36: 191–222. Google Scholar
  • Bos-Nehles A., Renkema M., & Janssen M. 2017. HRM and innovative work behaviour: A systematic literature review. Personnel Review, 46: 1228–1253. Google Scholar
  • Bruch H., & Sattelberger T. 2001. Lufthansa’s transformation marathon: Process of liberating and focusing change energy. Human Resource Management, 40: 249–259. Google Scholar
  • Bryant M., & Stensaker I. 2011. The competing roles of middle management: Negotiated order in the context of change. Journal of Change Management, 11: 353–373. Google Scholar
  • Buchanan D. A. 2011. Reflections: Good practice, not rocket science–understanding failures to change after extreme events. Journal of Change Management, 11: 273–288. Google Scholar
  • Burnes B. 2004a. Kurt Lewin and the planned approach to change: A re-appraisal. Journal of Management studies, 41: 977–1002. Google Scholar
  • Burnes B. 2004b. Managing change: A strategic approach to organisational dynamics (4th rev. ed.). Essex, UK: Prentice Hall. Google Scholar
  • Burnes B. 2015. Understanding resistance to change—Building on Coch and French. Journal of Change Management, 15: 92–116. Google Scholar
  • By R. T. 2005. Organisational change management: A critical review. Journal of Change Management, 5: 369–380. Google Scholar
  • Caldwell S. D., Herold D. M., & Fedor D. B. 2004. Toward an understanding of the relationships among organizational change, individual differences, and changes in person-environment fit: A cross-level study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89: 868–882. Google Scholar
  • Carter M. Z., Armenakis A. A., Feild H. S., & Mossholder K. W. 2013. Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34: 942–958. Google Scholar
  • Chan Y. E. 2002. Why haven’t we mastered alignment? The importance of the informal organization structure. MIS Quarterly Executive, 1: 97–112. Google Scholar
  • Cinite I., Duxbury L. E., & Higgins C. 2009. Measurement of perceived organizational readiness for change in the public sector. British Journal of Management, 20: 265–277. Google Scholar
  • Clark S. M., Gioia D. A., Ketchen D. J. Jr., & Thomas J. B. 2010. Transitional identity as a facilitator of organizational identity change during a merger. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55: 397–438. Google Scholar
  • Cobb A. T., Folger R., & Wooten K. 1995. The role justice plays in organizational change. Public Administration Quarterly, 19: 135–151. Google Scholar
  • Coch L., & French J. R. P. Jr. 1948. Overcoming resistance to change. Human Relations, 1: 512–532. Google Scholar
  • Cooperrider D. L., & Srivastva S. 1987. Appreciative inquiry in organizational life. In R. W. WoodmanW. A. Pasmore (Eds.), Research in organizational change and development: 129–169. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Google Scholar
  • Coyle-Shapiro J. A.-M. 1999. Employee participation and assessment of an organizational change intervention: A three-wave study of total quality management. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35: 439–456. Google Scholar
  • Creed W. E. D., & Scully M. A. 2011. Songs of ourselves: Employees’ deployment of social identity in workplace encounters. Journal of Management Inquiry, 20: 408–429. Google Scholar
  • Cummings T. G., & Worley C. G. 2009. Organization development and change. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
  • Cunningham C. E., Woodward C. A., Shannon H. S., MacIntosh J., Lendrum B., Rosenbloom D., & Brown J. 2002. Readiness for organizational change: A longitudinal study of workplace, psychological and behavioural correlates. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75: 377–392. Google Scholar
  • Dahl M. S. 2011. Organizational change and employee stress. Management Science, 57: 240–256. Google Scholar
  • Daly J. P., & Geyer P. D. 1994. The role of fairness in implementing large-scale change: Employee evaluations of process and outcome in seven facility relocations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15: 623–638. Google Scholar
  • Day K. M., Armenakis A., Feild H. S., & Norris D. R. 2012. Other organizations are doing it, why shouldn’t we? A look at downsizing and organizational identity through an institutional theory lens. Journal of Change Management, 12: 165–188. Google Scholar
  • Demerouti E., Xanthopoulou D., Petrou P., & Karagkounis C. 2017. Does job crafting assist dealing with organizational changes due to austerity measures? Two studies among Greek employees. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26: 574–589. Google Scholar
  • Dirks K. T., Cummings L. L., & Pierce J. L. 1996. Psychological ownership in organizations: Conditions under which individuals promote and resist change. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 9: 1–23. Google Scholar
  • Dutton J. E., & Ashford S. J. 1993. Selling issues to top management. Academy of Management Journal, 18: 397–428.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Dutton J. E., Ashford S. J., O’Neill R. M., & Lawrence K. A. 2001. Moves that matter: Issue selling and organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 716–736.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Eby L. T., Adams D. M., Russell J. E. A., & Gaby S. H. 2000. Perceptions of organizational readiness for change: Factors related to employees’ reactions to the implementation of team-based selling. Human Relations, 53: 419–442. Google Scholar
  • Edmondson A. 1999. Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 350–383. Google Scholar
  • Edmondson A. C. 2002. The local and variegated nature of learning in organizations: A group-level perspective. Organization Science, 13: 128–146. Google Scholar
  • Edmondson A. C., Bohmer R. M., & Pisano G. P. 2001. Disrupted routines: Team learning and new technology implementation in hospitals. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46: 685–716. Google Scholar
  • Ericsson K. A. (Ed.). 2009. Development of professional expertise: Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal learning environments. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  • Feldman M. S., & Pentland B. T. 2003. Reconceptualizing organizational routines as a source of flexibility and change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48: 94–118. Google Scholar
  • Ferlie E., Fitzgerald L., Wood M., & Hawkins C. 2005. The nonspread of innovations: The mediating role of professionals. Academy of Management Journal, 48: 117–134.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Fligstein N. 1997. Social skill and institutional theory. American Behavioral Scientist, 40: 397–405. Google Scholar
  • Frese M., Garst H., & Fay D. 2007. Making things happen: Reciprocal relationships between work characteristics and personal initiative in a four-wave longitudinal structural equation model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 1084–1102. Google Scholar
  • Friedlander F., & Brown L. D. 1974. Organization development. Annual Review of Psychology, 25: 313–341. Google Scholar
  • Fugate M., & Kinicki A. J. 2008. A dispositional approach to employability: Development of a measure and test of implications for employee reactions to organizational change. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81: 503–527. Google Scholar
  • Fugate M., Prussia G. E., & Kinicki A. J. 2012. Managing employee withdrawal during organizational change. Journal of Management, 38: 890–914. Google Scholar
  • Golden-Biddle K. 2013. How to change an organization without blowing it up. MIT Sloan Management Review, 54: 35–41. Google Scholar
  • Goodman P. S. 2000. Missing organizational linkages. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Goodman P., Rousseau D., & Church A. 2004. Organizational change that produces results: The linkage approach [and executive commentary]. Academy of Management Executive, 18: 7–21.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Greenberg J. 1990. Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts: Correction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75: 667. Google Scholar
  • Greenhalgh T., Robert G., Macfarlane F., Bate P., & Kyriakidou O. 2004. Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: Systematic review and recommendations. Milbank Quarterly, 82: 581–629. Google Scholar
  • Griffin M. A., Parker S. K., & Mason C. M. 2010. Leader vision and the development of adaptive and proactive performance: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95: 174–182. Google Scholar
  • Griffin M. A., Rafferty A. E., & Mason C. M. 2004. Who started this? Investigating different sources of organizational change. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18: 555–570. Google Scholar
  • Hardeman W., Johnston M., Johnston D., Bonetti D., Wareham N., & Kinmonth A. L. 2002. Application of the theory of planned behaviour in behaviour change interventions: A systematic review. Psychology and Health, 17: 123–158. Google Scholar
  • Harigopal K. 2006. Management of organizational change: Leveraging transformation (2nd ed.). New Delhi, India: Response Books. Google Scholar
  • Heckmann N., Steger T., & Dowling M. 2016. Organizational capacity for change, change experience, and change project performance. Journal of Business Research, 69: 777–784. Google Scholar
  • Herold D., Fedor D., & Caldwell S. 2007. Beyond change management: A multilevel investigation of contextual and personal influences on employees’ commitment to change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 942–951. Google Scholar
  • Heyden M. L., Fourné S. P., Koene B. A., Werkman R., & Ansari S. S. 2017. Rethinking ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ roles of top and middle managers in organizational change: Implications for employee support. Journal of Management Studies, 54: 961–985. Google Scholar
  • Hiatt J. M. 2006. ADKAR: A model for change in business, government and our community: How to implement successful change in our personal lives and professional careers. Loveland, CO: Prosci Research. Google Scholar
  • Higgins M. C., Weiner J., & Young L. 2012. Implementation teams: A new lever for organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33: 366–388. Google Scholar
  • Holbeche L. 2006. Understanding change: Theory, implementation and success. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann. Google Scholar
  • Hornung S., & Rousseau D. M. 2007. Active on the job—Proactive in change: How autonomy at work contributes to employee support for organizational change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43: 401–426. Google Scholar
  • Hornung S., Rousseau D. M., & Glaser J. 2008. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 655–664. Google Scholar
  • Hülsheger U. R., Anderson N., & Salgado J. F. 2009. Team-level predictors of innovation at work: A comprehensive meta-analysis spanning three decades of research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94: 1128. Google Scholar
  • Iverson R. D. 1996. Employee acceptance of organizational change: The role of organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7: 122–149. Google Scholar
  • Jarrel T. 2017. Success factors for implementing change at scale. New York: McKinsey & Co Presentation, Behavioral Science & Policy Association. Google Scholar
  • Jimmieson N., Peach M., & White K. M. 2008. Utilizing the theory of planned behavior to inform change management: An investigation of employee intentions to support organizational change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44: 237–262. Google Scholar
  • Judge T., Thoresen C., Pucik V., Welbourne T., & Murphy K. R. 1999. Managerial coping with organizational change: A dispositional perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84: 107–122. Google Scholar
  • Judson A. 1991. Changing behaviour in organizations: Minimizing resistance to change. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell. Google Scholar
  • Kahneman D., & Klein G. 2009. Conditions for intuitive expertise: A failure to disagree. American Psychologist, 64: 515–526. Google Scholar
  • Kanter R. M. 1999. Change is everyone’s job: Managing the extended enterprise in a globally connected world. Organizational Dynamics, 28: 7–23. Google Scholar
  • Kanter R. M., Stein B. A, & Jick T. D. 1992. The challenge of organizational change: How companies experience it and leaders guide it. New York: Free Press. Google Scholar
  • Kao R. H. 2017. The relationship between work characteristics and change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior: A multi-level study on transformational leadership and organizational climate in immigration workers. Personnel Review, 46: 1890–1914. Google Scholar
  • Kavanagh M. H., & Ashkanasy N. M. 2006. The impact of leadership and change management strategy on organizational culture and individual acceptance of change during a merger. British Journal of Management, 17: S81–S103. Google Scholar
  • Kellogg K. C. 2012. Making the cut: Using status-based countertactics to block social movement implementation and microinstitutional change in surgery. Organization Science, 23: 1546–1570. Google Scholar
  • Kerr S. 1975. On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B. Academy of Management Journal, 18: 769–783.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Kerr S. 1995. On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B. Academy of Management Executive, 9: 7–14.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Kickul J., Lester S. W., & Finkl J. 2002. Promise breaking during radical organizational change: Do justice interventions make a difference? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23: 469–488. Google Scholar
  • Kim T. G., Hornung S., & Rousseau D. M. 2011. Change-supportive employee behavior: Antecedents and the moderating role of time. Journal of Management, 37: 1664–1693. Google Scholar
  • Kirkpatrick S. A. 2009. Lead through vision and values. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of principles of organizational behavior (2nd ed.): 367–387. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Google Scholar
  • Kleingeld A., van Mierlo H., & Arends L. 2011. The effect of goal setting on group performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 1289–1304. Google Scholar
  • Kluger A. N., & DeNisi A. 1996. The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119: 254–284. Google Scholar
  • Knight C., Patterson M., & Dawson J. 2017. Building work engagement: A systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the effectiveness of work engagement interventions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38: 792–812. Google Scholar
  • Koivisto S., Lipponen J., & Platow M. J. 2013. Organizational and supervisory justice effects on experienced threat during change: The moderating role of leader in-group representativeness. Leadership Quarterly, 24: 595–607. Google Scholar
  • Kossek E., Lewis S., & Hammer L. B. 2010. Work—Life initiatives and organizational change: Overcoming mixed messages to move from the margin to the mainstream. Human Relations, 63(1): 3–19. Google Scholar
  • Kotter J. P. 1996. Leading change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press. Google Scholar
  • Kotter J. P. 2005. Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73: 59–67. Google Scholar
  • Kotter J. P. 2012. Accelerate! How the most innovative companies capitalize on today’s rapid-fire strategic challenges—and still make their numbers. Harvard Business Review, 90: 43–58. Google Scholar
  • Lam S. S., & Schaubroeck J. 2000. A field experiment testing frontline opinion leaders as change agents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85: 987. Google Scholar
  • Latham G. P., Winters D. C., & Locke E. A. 1994. Cognitive and motivational effects of participation: A mediator study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15: 49–63. Google Scholar
  • Lau C.-M., & Woodman R. 1995. Understanding organizational change: A schematic perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 226. Google Scholar
  • Laurin K., Kay A. C., & Fitzsimons G. J. 2012. Reactance versus rationalization: Divergent responses to constrained freedom. Psychological Science, 23: 205–209. Google Scholar
  • Lazarus R. S., & Folkman S. 1984. Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer. Google Scholar
  • Leadership Competencies. 2008. Available at: https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/behavioral-competencies/leadership-and-navigation/pages/leadershipcompetencies.aspx. Accessed September 15, 2017. Google Scholar
  • Leppitt N. 2006. Challenging the code of change: Part 1. Praxis does not make perfect. Journal of Change Management, 6: 121–142. Google Scholar
  • Lewin K. 1948. Resolving social conflicts: Selected papers on group dynamics. New York: Harper. Google Scholar
  • Lewin K. 1952. Selected theoretical papers. London: Tavistock. Google Scholar
  • Linden D. V. D., Keijsers G. P., Eling P., & Schaijk R. V. 2005. Work stress and attentional difficulties: An initial study on burnout and cognitive failures. Work & Stress, 19: 23–36. Google Scholar
  • Lippitt R., Watson J., & Westley B. 1958. The dynamics of planned change. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World. Google Scholar
  • Locke E. A., & Latham G. P. 1990. A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Google Scholar
  • Locke E. A., & Latham G. P. 2006. New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15: 265–268. Google Scholar
  • Loeser H., O’Sullivan P., & Irby P. 2007. Leadership lessons from curricular change and the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine. Academic Medicine, 82: 324–330. Google Scholar
  • Lok P., Hung R. Y., Walsh P., Wang P., & Crawford J. 2005. An integrative framework for measuring the extent to which organizational variables influence the success of process improvement programmes. Journal of Management Studies, 42: 1357–1381. Google Scholar
  • Malina M. A., & Selto F. H. 2001. Communicating and controlling strategy: An empirical study of the effectiveness of the balanced scorecard. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 13: 47–90. Google Scholar
  • Marin-Garcia J. A., & Tomas J. M. 2016. Deconstructing AMO framework: A systematic review. Intangible Capital, 12: 1040–1087. Google Scholar
  • Marshak R. J. 2002. Changing the language of change: How new contexts and concepts are challenging the ways we think and talk about organizational change. Strategic Change, 11: 279–286. Google Scholar
  • Mathieu J. E., & Zajac D. M. 1990. A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108: 171–194. Google Scholar
  • Mayer R. C., Davis J. H., & Schoorman F. D. 1995. An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20: 709–734.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • McCauley C. 2006. Developmental assignments: Creating learning experiences without changing jobs. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership Press. Google Scholar
  • McCormack B., Rycroft-Malone J., DeCorby K., Hutchinson A. M., Bucknall T., Kent B., Schultz A., Snelgrove-Clarke E., Stetler C., Titler M., Wallin L., & Wilson V. 2013. A realist review of interventions and strategies to promote evidence-informed healthcare: A focus on change agency. Implementation Science, 8: 107. Google Scholar
  • McCracken M., & McIvor R. 2013. Transforming the HR function through outsourced shared services: Insights from the public sector. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24: 1685–1707. Google Scholar
  • Meaney M., & Pung C. 2008. McKinsey global results: Creating organizational transformations. McKinsey Quarterly: 1–7. Google Scholar
  • Melkonian T., Monin P., & Noorderhaven N. 2011. Distributive justice, procedural justice, exemplarity, and employees’ willingness to cooperate in M&A integration processes: Analysis of the air France-KLM merger. Human Resource Management, 50: 809–837. Google Scholar
  • Meuris J., & Leana C. R. 2015. The high cost of low wages: Economic scarcity effects in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 35: 143–158. Google Scholar
  • Meyer J. P., Srinivas E. S., Lal J. B., & Topolnytsky L. 2007. Employee commitment and support for an organizational change: Test of the three-component model in two cultures. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80: 185–211. Google Scholar
  • Michela J. L., & Vena J. 2012. A dependence-regulation account of psychological distancing in response to major organizational change. Journal of Change Management, 12: 77–94. Google Scholar
  • Mirvis P. H. 1985. Negotiations after the sale: The roots and ramifications of conflict in an acquisition. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 6: 65–84. Google Scholar
  • Morrison E. W., & Phelps C. C. 1999. Taking charge at work: Extrarole efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42: 403–419.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Nadler D. A. 1976. The use of feedback for organizational change: Promises and pitfalls. Group & Organization Studies, 1: 177–186. Google Scholar
  • Nelson A., Cooper C. L., & Jackson P. R. 1995. Uncertainty amidst change: The impact of privatization on employee job satisfaction and well-being. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 68: 57–71. Google Scholar
  • Nesler M. S., Aguinis H., Quigley B. M., & Tedeschi J. T. 1993. The effect of credibility on perceived power. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23: 1407–1425. Google Scholar
  • Neubert M. J. 1998. The value of feedback and goal setting over goal setting alone and potential moderators of this effect: A meta-analysis. Human Performance, 11: 321–335. Google Scholar
  • Neuman G. A., Edwards J. E., & Raju N. S. 1989. Organizational development interventions: A meta-analysis of their effects on satisfaction and other attitudes. Personnel Psychology, 42: 461–489. Google Scholar
  • Nurick A. J. 1982. Participation in organizational change: A longitudinal field study. Human Relations, 35: 413–429. Google Scholar
  • Nutt P. C. 1999. Surprising but true: Half the decisions in organizations fail. Academy of Management Executive, 13: 75–90.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • O’Leary-Kelly A. M., Martocchio J. J., & Frink D. D. 1994. A review of the influence of group goals on group performance. Academy of Management Journal, 37: 1285–1301.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Oreg S., Vakola M., & Armenakis A. 2011. Change recipients’ reactions to organizational change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 47: 461–524. Google Scholar
  • Parker S. K., Williams H. M., & Turner N. 2006. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 636–652. Google Scholar
  • Peach M., Jimmieson N. L., & White K. M. 2005. Beliefs underlying employee readiness to support a building relocation: A theory of planned behavior perspective. Organization Development Journal, 23: 9–22. Google Scholar
  • Pettigrew A., Woodman R., & Cameron K. 2001. Studying organizational change and development: Challenges for future research. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 697–713.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Phelan M. W. 2005. Cultural revitalization movements in organization change management. Journal of Change Management, 5: 47–56. Google Scholar
  • Piderit S. K. 2000. Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: A multidimensional view of attitudes toward an organizational change. Academy of Management Review, 25: 783–794.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Pornpitakpan C. 2004. The persuasiveness of source credibility: A critical review of five decades’ evidence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34: 243–281. Google Scholar
  • Pritchard R. D., Harrell M. M., DiazGranados D., & Guzman M. J. 2008. The productivity measurement and enhancement system: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 540–567. Google Scholar
  • Proudfoot D., & Kay A. C. 2014. System justification in organizational contexts: How a motivated preference for the status quo can affect organizational attitudes and behaviors. Research in Organizational Behavior, 34: 173–187. Google Scholar
  • Rafferty A. E., & Griffin M. A. 2006. Perceptions of organizational change: A stress and coping perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 1154–1162. Google Scholar
  • Rafferty A. E., & Restubog S. L. D. 2017. Why do employees’ perceptions of their organization’s change history matter? The role of change appraisals. Human Resource Management, 56: 533–550. Google Scholar
  • Rafferty A. E., & Simons R. H. 2006. An examination of the antecedents of readiness for fine-tuning and corporate transformation changes. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20: 325–350. Google Scholar
  • Reay T., Golden-Biddle K., & Germann K. 2006. Legitimizing a new role: Small wins and microprocesses of change. Academy of Management Journal, 49: 977–998.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Reiman T., & Pietikäinen E. 2012. Leading indicators of system safety–monitoring and driving the organizational safety potential. Safety Science, 50: 1993–2000. Google Scholar
  • Rerup C., & Feldman M. S. 2011. Routines as a source of change in organizational schemata: The role of trial-and-error learning. Academy of Management Journal, 54: 577–610.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Rich A., Brandes K., Mullan B., & Hagger M. S. 2015. Theory of planned behavior and adherence in chronic illness: A meta-analysis. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38: 673–688. Google Scholar
  • Robinson O., & Griffiths A. 2005. Coping with the stress of transformational change in a government department. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41: 204–221. Google Scholar
  • Rodell J. B., & Colquitt J. A. 2009. Looking ahead in times of uncertainty: The role of anticipatory justice in an organizational change context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94: 989–1002. Google Scholar
  • Rousseau D. M. 1995. Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Rousseau D. M. 1996. Changing the deal while keeping the people. Academy of Management Executive, 10: 50–61.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Rousseau D. M. 2005. I-deals: Idiosyncratic deals workers bargain for themselves. New York: M. E. Sharpe. Google Scholar
  • Rousseau D. M. 2018. Making evidence-based organizational decisions. Organizational Dynamics, in press. Google Scholar
  • Rousseau D. M., & Gunia B. C. 2016. Evidence-based practice: The psychology of EBP implementation. Annual Review of Psychology, 67: 667–692. Google Scholar
  • Rousseau D. M., Hansen S., & Tomprou T. 2018. A dynamic phase model of psychological contract processes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, in press. Google Scholar
  • Rousseau D. M., Manning J., & Denyer D. 2008. Evidence in management and organizational science: Assembling the field’s full weight of scientific knowledge through syntheses. Academy of Management Annals, 2: 475–515.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Rousseau D. M., Sitkin S. B., Burt R. S., & Camerer C. 1998. Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust. Academy of Management Review, 23: 393–404.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Rousseau D. M., & Tijoriwala S. 1999. What’s a good reason to change? Motivated reasoning and social accounts in promoting organizational change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84: 514–528. Google Scholar
  • Sackett D. L., Straus S. E., Richardson W. S., Rosenberg W., & Haynes R. B. 2000. Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM. New York: Churchill Livingstone. Google Scholar
  • Sastry M. A. 1997. Problems and paradoxes in a model of punctuated organizational change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 237–275. Google Scholar
  • Schechter C., & Qadach M. 2012. Toward an organizational model of change in elementary schools: The contribution of organizational learning mechanisms. Educational Administration Quarterly, 48: 116–153. Google Scholar
  • Scheck C. L., & Kinicki A. J. 2000. Identifying the antecedents of coping with an organizational acquisition: A structural assessment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21: 627–648. Google Scholar
  • Schweiger D. M., & DeNisi A. S. 1991. Communication with employees following a merger: A longitudinal field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 34: 110–135.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Schweitzer M. E., Ordóñez L., & Douma B. 2004. Goal setting as a motivator of unethical behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 47: 422–432.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Seijts G. H., & Latham G. P. 2005. Learning versus performance goals: When should each be used? Academy of Management Executive, 19: 124–131.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Senge P. M, Kleiner A., & Roberts C. 1996. Het vijfde discipline praktijkboek: Strategieen en instrumenten voor het bouwen van een lerende organisatie [The fifth discipline practice book: Strategies and instruments for building a learning organization], vol. 2. Schoonhoven, The Netherlands: Academic service. Google Scholar
  • Shapiro D. L., Buttner E. H., & Barry B. 1994. Explanations: What factors enhance their perceived adequacy? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 58: 346–368. Google Scholar
  • Sharif M. M., & Scandura T. A. 2014. Do perceptions of ethical conduct matter during organizational change? Ethical leadership and employee involvement. Journal of Business Ethics, 124: 185–196. Google Scholar
  • Shaw J. C., Wild E., & Colquitt J. A. 2003. To justify or excuse? A meta-analytic review of the effects of explanations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88: 444–458. Google Scholar
  • Shojania K. G., Ranji S. R., Shaw L. K., Charo L. M., Lai J. C., Rushakoff R. J., McDonald K. M., & Owens D. K. 2004. Diabetes mellitus care. In K. G. ShojaniaK. M. McDonaldR. M. WachterD. K. Owens (Eds.), Closing the quality gap: A critical analysis of quality improvement strategies. Technical Review 9, vol. 2. Rockville, MD: Stanford University-UCSF Evidence-Based Practice Center. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Google Scholar
  • Simpson R. 1998. Presenteeism, power and organizational change: Long hours as a career barrier and the impact on the working lives of women managers. British Journal of Management, 9: 37–50. Google Scholar
  • Soenen G., Melkonian T., & Ambrose M. L. 2017. To shift or not to shift? Determinants and consequences of phase shifting on justice judgments. Academy of Management Journal, 60: 798–817.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Stanley D. J., Meyer J. P., & Topolnytsky L. 2005. Employee cynicism and resistance to organizational change. Journal of Business and Psychology, 19: 429–459. Google Scholar
  • Staw B. M., Sandelands L. E., & Dutton J. E. 1981. Threat rigidity effects in organizational behavior: A multilevel analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25: 501–524. Google Scholar
  • Szamosi L. T., & Duxbury L. 2002. Development of a measure to assess organizational change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 15: 184–201. Google Scholar
  • ten Have S., ten Have W., Huijsmans A. B., & Otto M. 2016. Reconsidering change management: Applying evidence-based insights in change management practice, vol. 16. London: Routledge. Google Scholar
  • Tichy N., & DeVanna M. 1986. The transformational leader. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
  • Tushman M. L., & Romanelli E. 1985. Organizational evolution: A metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientation. In B. M. StawL. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior: 171–222. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Google Scholar
  • Tyler T. R., & Blader S. L. 2003. The group engagement model: Procedural justice, social identity, and cooperative behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7: 349–361. Google Scholar
  • Unsworth K. L., Dmitrieva A., & Adriasola E. 2013. Changing behaviour: Increasing the effectiveness of workplace interventions in creating pro-environmental behaviour change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34: 211–229. Google Scholar
  • Vakola M., & Nikolaou I. 2005. Attitudes towards organizational change: What is the role of employees’ stress and commitment? Employee Relations, 27: 160–174. Google Scholar
  • Valentino C. 2004. The role of middle managers in the transmission and integration of organizational culture. Journal of Healthcare Management, 49: 393–404. Google Scholar
  • Valleala U. M., Herranen S., Collin K., & Paloniemi S. 2015. Fostering learning opportunities through employee participation amid organizational change. Vocations and Learning, 8: 1–34. Google Scholar
  • van der Smissen S., Schalk R., & Freese C. 2013. Organizational change and the psychological contract: How change influences the perceived fulfillment of obligations. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 26: 1071–1090. Google Scholar
  • van Knippenberg B., Martin L., & Tyler T. 2006. Process-orientation versus outcome-orientation during organizational change: The role of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27: 685–704. Google Scholar
  • Wagner J. A. 1994. Participation’s effects on performance and satisfaction: A reconsideration of research evidence. Academy of Management Review, 19: 312–330.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Wagner J. A. 2009. Use participation to share information and distribute knowledge. In E. A. Locke (Ed.), Handbook of principles of organizational behavior (2nd ed.): 445–460. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
  • Wanberg C. R., & Banas J. T. 2000. Predictors and outcomes of openness to change in a reorganizing workplace. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85: 132–142. Google Scholar
  • Wanberg C. R., Gavin M. B., & Bunce L. W. 1999. Perceived fairness of layoffs among individuals who have been laid off: A longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 52: 59–84. Google Scholar
  • Weiner B. J., Amick H., & Lee S. Y. D. 2008. Conceptualization and measurement of organizational readiness for change: A review of the literature in health services research and other fields. Medical Care Research and Review, 65: 379–436. Google Scholar
  • Wensing M., Wollersheim H., & Grol R. 2006. Organizational interventions to implement improvements in patient care: A structured review of reviews. Implementation Science, 1: 2. Google Scholar
  • Westerlund A., Garvare R., Höög E., & Nyström M. E. 2015. Facilitating system-wide organizational change in health care. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 7: 72–89. Google Scholar
  • Wiedner R., Barrett M., & Oborn E. 2017. The emergence of change in unexpected places: Resourcing across organizational practices in strategic change. Academy of Management Journal, 60: 823–854.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Wright P., & Nishii L. H. 2013. Strategic HRM and organizational behavior: Integrating multiple levels of analysis. In D. GuestJ. PaauweP. Wright (Eds.), HRM and performance: Achievements and challenges: 97–110. Chichester, UK: Wiley. Google Scholar
  • Wrzesniewski A., & Dutton J. E. 2001. Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26: 179–201.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Zadeh L. A. 1965. Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, 8: 338–353. Google Scholar
  • Zheng W., Yang B., & McLean G. N. 2010. Linking organizational culture, structure, strategy, and organizational effectiveness: Mediating role of knowledge management. Journal of Business Research, 63: 763–771. Google Scholar