Integrative social contracts theory has multilevel implications for similarities and differences in ethical attitudes between and among members of national groups. This theory identifies two conditions—type of norm and degree of community inclusion—that predict convergence rather than divergence in ethical attitudes. Our findings support our convergence hypotheses. Russian and American survey respondents expressed similar attitudes toward organizational practices violating ethical “hypernorms.” American expatriates who were highly included in Russian communities expressed attitudes similar to those of Russian respondents when evaluating “local norm” practices. In both cases, Russians' and Americans' ethical attitudes converged despite differences in their national identities.


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