Published Online:https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2019.0037

Many countries face cycles of repeated violence. Attacks on health workers and facilities exact a toll on civilian access to care and, in aggregate, population health status. A variety of humanitarian organizations provide essential services to augment limited state capacity. Yet, humanitarian organizations often work in parallel even in the same conflict-affected contexts. We use a high-reliability organization lens to examine violent attacks on the health care programs that humanitarian organizations operate in fragile states. More specifically, we examine an extant construct of coupling through qualitative evidence of collaborative relationships and creative problem-solving under stressful conditions. We find three salient features from qualitative data: trade-off between security and field access, transfer of risk to local actors, and marketization of aid. We find that these three features drive humanitarian organizations to act nimbly within countries to prioritize their organizational reliability across countries. While stabilizing the individual organization, these features create disincentives to interorganizational coordination at the cluster level and are agnostic to output (i.e., health care provision) reliability. We hope our study will sensitize readers to several issues facing high-reliability health care in times of war.

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