Published Online:https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2009.0333

We propose a cybernetic model of job search and voluntary turnover that is based on the need to remain employable in a volatile economy. The model depicts the process by which individuals engage in ongoing cycles of job search activities that can increase the likelihood of voluntary turnover, which, in turn, provides opportunities to develop additional career competencies. We then examine the implications of the model for future research on the turnover process.

REFERENCES

  • Abele A. E., Wiese B. S. 2008. The nomological network of self-management strategies and career success. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81: 733–749. Google Scholar
  • Allen D. A., Weeks K. P., Moffitt K. R. 2005. Turnover intentions and voluntary turnover: The moderating roles of self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 980–990. Google Scholar
  • Allen D. G., Griffeth R. W. 2001. Test of a mediated performance-turnover relationship highlighting the moderating roles of visibility and reward contingency. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86: 1014–1021. Google Scholar
  • Allen T. D., Eby L. T., Poteet M. L., Lentz E., Lima L. 2004. Career benefits associated with mentoring for protégés: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89: 127–136. Google Scholar
  • Arthur M. B. 1994. The boundaryless career: A new perspective for organizational inquiry. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15: 295–306. Google Scholar
  • Arthur M. B., Inkson K., Pringle J. K. 1999. The new career: Individual action and economic change. London: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Arthur M. B., Rousseau D. M. 1996. Introduction: The boundaryless career as a new employment principle. In Arthur M. B.Rousseau D. M. (Eds.), The boundaryless career: 3–20. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  • Ashkenas R., Ulrich D., Jick T., Kerr S. 1995. The boundaryless organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
  • Avey J. B., Luthans F., Smith R. M., Palmer N. F. 2010. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15: 17–28. Google Scholar
  • Bandura A. 1991. Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50: 248–287. Google Scholar
  • Bansak C., Raphael S. 2006. Have employment relationships in the United States become less stable? International Advances in Economic Research, 12: 342–357. Google Scholar
  • Barrick M. R., Mount M. K. 1991. The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44: 1–26. Google Scholar
  • Baruch, 2001. Employability: A substitute for loyalty? Human Resource Development International, 4: 543–566. Google Scholar
  • Baugh S. G., Scandura T. A. 1999. The effect of multiple mentors on protégé attitudes toward the work setting. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 14: 503–522. Google Scholar
  • Benson G. S. 2006. Employee development, commitment and intention to turnover: A test of “employability” policies in action. Human Resource Management Journal, 16: 173–192. Google Scholar
  • Berntson E., Naswall K., Sverke M. 2010. The moderating role of employability in the association between job insecurity and exit, voice, loyalty and neglect. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 31: 215–230. Google Scholar
  • Blau G. 1993. Further exploring the relationship between job search and voluntary individual turnover. Personnel Psychology, 46: 313–330. Google Scholar
  • Blau G. 1994. Testing a two-dimensional measure of job search behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 59: 288–312. Google Scholar
  • Boisjoly J., Duncan G. J., Smeeding T. 1998. The shifting burdens of involuntary job losses from 1968 to 1992. Industrial Relations, 37: 207–231. Google Scholar
  • Boswell W. E., Boudreau J. W., Dunford B. B. 2004. The outcomes and correlates of job search objectives: Searching to leave or searching for leverage? Journal of Applied Psychology, 89: 1083–1091. Google Scholar
  • Bozeman D. P., Kacmar K. M. 1997. A cybernetic model of impression management processes in organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69: 9–30. Google Scholar
  • Bretz R. D., Boudreau J. W., Judge T. A. 1994. Job search behavior of employed managers. Personnel Psychology, 47: 275–301. Google Scholar
  • Briscoe J. P., Hall D. T. 2006. The interplay of boundaryless and protean careers: Combinations and implications. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69: 4–18. Google Scholar
  • Briscoe J. P., Hall D. T., DeMuth R. L. 2006. Protean and boundaryless careers: An empirical exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69: 30–47. Google Scholar
  • Brown C., Haltiwanger J., Lane J. 2006. Economic turbulence: Is a volatile economy good for America? Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar
  • Callanan G. A., Greenhaus J. H. 1999. Personal and career development: The best and worst of times. In Kraut A. I.Korman A. K. (Eds.), Evolving practices in human resource management: Responses to a changing world of work: 146–171. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
  • Cappelli P. 1999. Career jobs are dead. California Management Review, 42 (1): 146–167. Google Scholar
  • Cappelli P. 2006. Churning of jobs. In Greenhaus J. H.Callanan G. A. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development: 165–167. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Cappelli P., Sherer. P. D. 1991. The missing role of context in OB: The need for a meso-level approach. Research in Organizational Behavior, 13: 55–110. Google Scholar
  • Carmeli A., Brueller D., Dutton J. E. 2009. Learning behaviours in the workplace: The role of high quality interpersonal relationships and psychological safety. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 26: 81–98. Google Scholar
  • Carmeli A., Spreitzer G. M. 2009. Trust, connectivity, and thriving: Implications for innovative behaviors at work. Journal of Creative Behavior, 43: 169–191. Google Scholar
  • Carver C., Scheier M. 1982. Control theory: A useful conceptual framework for personality-social, clinical, and health psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 92: 111–135. Google Scholar
  • Chan D. 2000. Understanding adaptation to changes in the work environment: Integrating individual difference and learning perspectives. In Ferris G. R. (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management: 1–42. Stamford, CT: JAI Press. Google Scholar
  • Chao G. T. 2006. Organizational socialization. In Greenhaus J. H.Callanan G. A. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development: 596–602. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Chao G. T., O'Leary-Kelly A. M., Wolf S., Klein H. J., Gardner P. D. 1994. Organizational socialization: Its contents and consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79: 730–743. Google Scholar
  • Comin D., Mulani S. 2006. Diverging trends in aggregate and form volatility. Review of Economics and Statistics, 88: 374–383. Google Scholar
  • Comin D., Philippon T. 2005. The rise in firm-level volatility: Causes and consequences. NBER/Macroeconomics Annual, 20: 167–201. Google Scholar
  • Conger J. A., Pearce C. L. 2003. A landscape of opportunities: Future research on shared leadership. In Pearce C. L.Conger J. (Eds.), Shared leadership: Reframing the hows and whys of leadership: 285–303. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Crant J. M. 2000. Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 26: 435–462. Google Scholar
  • Dany F. 2003. “Free actors” and organizations: Critical remarks about the new career literature, based on French insights. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14: 821–838. Google Scholar
  • Davis S. J., Haltiwanger J. C., Schuh S. 1997. Job creation and destruction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Google Scholar
  • DeFillippi R. J., Arthur M. B. 1994. The boundaryless career: A competency-based perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15: 307–324. Google Scholar
  • de Janasz S. C., Sullivan S. E. 2004. Multiple mentoring in academe: Developing the professorial network. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64: 263–283. Google Scholar
  • Dess G. D., Shaw J. D. 2001. Voluntary turnover, social capital, and organizational performance. Academy of Management Review, 26: 446–456.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • De Vos A., Soens N. 2008. Protean attitude and career success: The mediating role of self-management. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73: 449–456. Google Scholar
  • Dickter D. N., Roznowski M., Harrison D. A. 1996. Temporal tampering: An event history analysis of the process of voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81: 705–716. Google Scholar
  • Dilchert S., Ones D. S., Van Rooy D. L., Viswesvaran C. 2006. Big Five factors of personality. In Greenhaus J. H.Callanan G. A. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development: 36–42. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Dutton J. E., Heaphy E. D. 2003. The power of high-quality connections. In Cameron K. S.Dutton J. E.Quinn R. E. (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline: 263–278. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Google Scholar
  • Eby L. T., Butts M., Lockwood A. 2003. Predictors of success in the era of the boundaryless career. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24: 689–708. Google Scholar
  • Edmondson A. 1999. Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 350–383. Google Scholar
  • Fagenson-Eland E. A., Marks M. A., Amendola K. L. 1997. Perceptions of mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51: 29–42. Google Scholar
  • Farber H. S. 1995. Are lifetime jobs disappearing? Job duration in the United States 1973–1993. Working paper No. 5014. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Google Scholar
  • Farber H. S. 2005. What do we know about job loss in the United States? Evidence from the displaced workers survey, 1984–2004. Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 29 (2): 13–28. Google Scholar
  • Farber H. S., Haltiwanger J., Abraham K. G. 1997. The changing face of job loss in the United States, 1981–1995. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Microeconomics, 1997: 55–142. Google Scholar
  • Feldman D. C., Leana R. C. 2000. A study of reemployment challenges after downsizing: What ever happened to laid-off executives? Organizational Dynamics, 29 (1): 64–75. Google Scholar
  • Finn D. 2000. From full employment to employability: A new deal for Britain's unemployed? International Journal of Manpower, 21: 384–399. Google Scholar
  • Forret M. L., Sullivan S. E. 2002. A balanced scorecard approach to networking: A guide to successfully navigating career changes. Organizational Dynamics, 31 (3): 245–258. Google Scholar
  • Forrier A., Sels L. 2003. The concept of employability: A complex mosaic. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 2: 102–124. Google Scholar
  • Fugate M. 2006. Employability. In Greenhaus J. H.Callanan G. A. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development: 267–271. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Fugate M., Kinicki A. J. 2008. A dispositional approach to employability: Development of a measure and tests of implications for employee reactions to organizational change. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81: 503–527. Google Scholar
  • Fugate M., Kinicki A. J., Ashforth B. E. 2004. Employability: A psycho-social construct, its dimensions, and applications. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65: 14–38. Google Scholar
  • Fullerton A. S., Wallace M. 2007. Traversing the flexible turn: U.S. workers' perceptions of job security, 1977–2002. Social Science Research, 36: 201–221. Google Scholar
  • Galunic D., Anderson E. 2000. From security to mobility: Generalized investments in human capital and agent commitment. Organization Science, 11: 1–20. Google Scholar
  • Gault J., Redington J., Schlager T. 2000. Undergraduate business internships and career success: Are they related? Journal of Marketing Education, 22: 45–53. Google Scholar
  • Gerhart B. 1990. Voluntary turnover and alternative job opportunities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75: 467–476. Google Scholar
  • Gooty J., Gavin M., Johnson P. D., Frazier M. L., Snow D. B. 2009. In the eyes of the beholder: Transformational leadership, positive psychological capital, and performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15: 353–367. Google Scholar
  • Gould S. 1979. Characteristics of career planners in upwardly mobile occupations. Academy of Management Journal, 22: 539–550.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Gould S., Penley L. E. 1984. Career strategies and salary progression: A study of their relationships in a municipal bureaucracy. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34: 244–265. Google Scholar
  • Greenhaus J. H., Callanan G. A., DiRenzo M. S. 2008. A boundaryless perspective on careers. In Cooper C. L.Barling J. (Eds.), Handbook of organizational behavior: 277–299. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Greenhaus J. H., Callanan G. A., Godshalk V. M. 2010. Career management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Griffeth R., Steel R., Allen D., Bryan N. 2005. The development of a multidimensional measure of job market cognitions: The employment opportunity index (EOI). Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 335–349. Google Scholar
  • Griffeth R. W., Hom P. W. 1988. A comparison of different conceptualizations of perceived alternatives in turnover research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9: 101–111. Google Scholar
  • Griffeth R. W., Hom P. W., Gaertner S. 2000. A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26: 463–488. Google Scholar
  • Grote G., Raeder S. 2009. Careers and identity in flexible working: Do flexible identities fare better? Human Relations, 62: 219–244. Google Scholar
  • Hall D. T. 2002. Careers in and out of organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Google Scholar
  • Hall D. T., Mirvis P. H. 1995. The new career contract: Developing the whole person at midlife and beyond. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47: 269–289. Google Scholar
  • Harrison D. A., Virick M., William S. 1996. Working without a net: Time, performance, and turnover under maximally contingent rewards. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81: 331–345. Google Scholar
  • Herriot P., Manning W. E. G., Kidd J. M. 1997. The content of the psychological contract. British Journal of Management, 8: 151–162. Google Scholar
  • Higgins M. C. 2000. The more, the merrier: Multiple developmental relationships and work satisfaction. Journal of Management Development, 19: 277–296. Google Scholar
  • Higgins M. C., Kram K. E. 2001. Reconceptualizing mentoring at work: A developmental network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26: 264–288.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Higgins M. C., Thomas D. A. 2001. Constellations and careers: Toward understanding the effects of multiple developmental relationships. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22: 223–247. Google Scholar
  • Hillage J., Pollard E. 1998. Employability: Developing a framework for policy analysis. Department for Education and Employment Research Report No. 85. London: Institute for Employment Studies. Google Scholar
  • Ho K. 2009. Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Google Scholar
  • Holtom B. C., Inderrieden E. J. 2006. Integrating the unfolding model and job embeddedness model to better understand voluntary turnover. Journal of Managerial Issues, 18: 435–452. Google Scholar
  • Holtom B. C., Mitchell T. R., Lee T. W., Eberly M. B. 2008. Turnover and retention research: A glance at the past, a closer review of the present, and a venture into the future. Academy of Management Annals, 2: 231–274.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Hom P. W., Caranikas-Walker F., Prussia G. E., Griffeth R. W. 1992. A meta-analytical structural equations analysis of a model of employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77: 890–909. Google Scholar
  • Hom P. W., Griffeth R. W. 1991. Structural equations modeling test of a turnover theory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76: 350–366. Google Scholar
  • Hom P. W., Griffeth R. W. 1995. Employee turnover. Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing. Google Scholar
  • Hom P. W., Griffeth R. W., Selaro L. L. 1984. The validity of Mobley's (1977) model of employee turnover. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34: 141–174. Google Scholar
  • Hom P. W., Kinicki A. J. 2001. Toward a greater understanding of how dissatisfaction drives employee turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 975–987.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Ibarra H., Barbulescu R. 2010. Identity as narrative: Prevalence, effectiveness and consequences of narrative identity work in macro work role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 35: 135–154.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Iles P., Forster A., Tinline G. 1996. The changing relationships between work commitment, personal flexibility, and employability: An evaluation of a field experiment in executive development. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 11: 18–34. Google Scholar
  • Inkson K., Baruch Y. 2008. Organizational careers. In Clegg S.Cooper C. L. (Eds.), Handbook of macro-organizational behavior: 209–223. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Ituma A., Simpson R. 2006. The chameleon career: An exploratory study of the work biography of information technology workers in Nigeria. Career Development International, 11: 48–65. Google Scholar
  • Jackofsky E. F., Peters L. H. 1983. The hypothesized effects of ability in the turnover process. Academy of Management Review, 8: 46–49.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Jaeger D. A., Stevens A. H. 1999. Is job stability in the United States falling? Reconciling trends in the current population survey and panel study of income dynamics. Journal of Labor Economics, 17: 1–28. Google Scholar
  • Kalleberg A. 2009. Precarious work, insecure workers. American Sociological Review, 74: 1–22. Google Scholar
  • Kammeyer-Mueller J. D., Wanberg C. R., Glomb T. M., Ahlburg D. 2005. The role of temporal shifts in turnover processes: It's about time. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 644–658. Google Scholar
  • Kanter R. M. 1993. Employability security. Business and Society Review, 87 (Special Issue): 9–17. Google Scholar
  • Kelan E. 2008. Gender, risk, and employment insecurity: The masculine breadwinner subtext. Human Relations, 61: 1171–1202. Google Scholar
  • King J. E. 2000. White collar reactions to job insecurity and the role of the psychological contract: Implications for human resource management. Human Resource Management, 39: 79–92. Google Scholar
  • King Z. 2004. Career self-management: Its nature, causes and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65: 112–133. Google Scholar
  • Kirschenbaum A., Weisberg J. 2002. Employee's turnover intentions and job destination choices. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23: 109–125. Google Scholar
  • Klein K. J., Ziegert J. C., Knight A. P., Xiao Y. 2006. Dynamic delegation: Shared, hierarchical, and deindividualized leadership in extreme action teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51: 590–621. Google Scholar
  • Kossek E. E., Roberts K., Fisher S., DeMarr B. 1998. Career self-management: A quasi-experimental assessment of the effects of a training intervention. Personnel Psychology, 51: 935–962. Google Scholar
  • Kram K. E. 1985. Mentoring at work. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman. Google Scholar
  • Lazear E. P. 1986. Salaries and piece rates. The Journal of Business, 59: 405–431. Google Scholar
  • Lee T. H., Gerhart B., Weller I., Trevor C. O. 2008. Understanding voluntary turnover: Path-specific job satisfaction effects and the importance of unsolicited job offers. Academy of Management Journal, 51: 651–671.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Lee T. W., Mitchell T. R. 1994. An alternative approach: The unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover. Academy of Management Review, 19: 51–89.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Lee T. W., Mitchell T. R., Holtom B. C., McDaniel L. S., Hill J. W. 1999. The unfolding model of voluntary turnover: A replication and extension. Academy of Management Journal, 42: 450–462.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Lester R., Hillman A., Zardkoohi A., Cannella A. 2008. Former government officials as outside directors: The role of human and social capital. Academy of Management Journal, 51: 999–1013.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Locke E. A. 1976. The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In Dunnette M. D. (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology: 1297–1349. Chicago: Rand McNally. Google Scholar
  • Locke E. A., Latham G. P. 1990. A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Google Scholar
  • Lord R. G., Maher K. J. 1990. Alternative information-processing models and their implications for theory, research, and practice. Academy of Management Review, 15: 9–28.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Luthans F., Avey J. B., Avolio B. J., Peterson S. J. 2010. The development and resulting performance impact of positive psychological capital. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21: 41–67. Google Scholar
  • Luthans F., Avolio B. J., Avey J. B., Norman S. M. 2007. Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60: 541–572. Google Scholar
  • Luthans F., Youssef C. M. 2004. Human, social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33 (2): 143–160. Google Scholar
  • Luthans F., Youssef C. M. 2007. Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management, 33: 321–349. Google Scholar
  • Luthans F., Youssef C. M., Avolio B. J. 2007. Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  • Maertz C. P., Campion M. A. 2004. Profiles in quitting: Integrating process and content turnover theory. Academy of Management Journal, 47: 566–582.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • March J. G., Simon H. A. 1958. Organizations. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
  • Marcotte. D. E. 1996. Has job stability declined? Evidence from the panel study of income dynamics. Manuscript, Center for Governmental Studies, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb. Google Scholar
  • Marcotte D. E., Hartman R. W. 1995. Declining job stability: What we know and what it means. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 14: 590–598. Google Scholar
  • McArdle S., Waters L., Briscoe J. P., Hall D. T. 2007. Employability during unemployment: Adaptability, career identity and human and social capital. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71: 247–264. Google Scholar
  • McCauley C. D., Ruderman M. N., Ohlott D. J., Morrow J. W. 1994. Assessing the developmental components of managerial jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79: 544–560. Google Scholar
  • Milgrom P., Oster S. 1987. Job discrimination, market forces, and the invisibility hypothesis. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 102: 453–476. Google Scholar
  • Mirvis P. H., Hall D. T. 1994. Psychological success and the boundaryless career. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15: 365–380. Google Scholar
  • Mitchell T. R., Holtom B. C., Lee T. W., Sablynski C. J., Erez M. 2001. Why people stay: Using job embeddedness to predict voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 1102–1121.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Mitchell T. R., Lee T. W. 2001. The unfolding model of voluntary turnover and job embeddedness: Foundations for a comprehensive theory of attachment. Research in Organizational Behavior, 23: 189–246. Google Scholar
  • Mobley W. H. 1977. Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62: 237–240. Google Scholar
  • Mobley W. H., Griffeth R. W., Hand H. H., Meglino B. M. 1979. Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86: 493–522. Google Scholar
  • Monks J., Pizer S. D. 1998. Trends in voluntary and involuntary job turnover. Industrial Relations, 37: 440–459. Google Scholar
  • Nauta A., Van Vianen A., Van der Heijden B., Van Dam K., Willemsen M. 2009. Understanding the factors that promote employability orientation: The impact of employability culture, career satisfaction, and role breadth self-efficacy. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82: 233–251. Google Scholar
  • Neumark D., Polsky D., Hansen D. 1999. Has job stability declined yet? New evidence for the 1990s. Journal of Labor Economics, 17: 29–64. Google Scholar
  • Noe R. A. 1996. Is career management related to employee development and performance? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17: 119–133. Google Scholar
  • Parker H., Arthur M. B. 2000. Careers, organizing, and community. In Peiperl M. A.Arthur M. B.Goffee R.Morris T. (Eds.), Career frontiers: New conceptions of working lives: 99–121. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  • Pinkley R. L., Neale M. A., Bennett R. J. 1994. The impact of alternatives to settlement in dyadic negotiation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 57: 97–116. Google Scholar
  • Podsakoff N. P., LePine J. A., LePine M. A. 2007. Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 438–454. Google Scholar
  • Polsky D. 1999. Changing consequences of job separation in the United States. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 52: 565–580. Google Scholar
  • Porter L. W., Steers R. M. 1973. Organizational, work, and personal factors in employee turnover and absenteeism. Psychological Bulletin, 80: 151–176. Google Scholar
  • Price J. L., Mueller C. W. 1981. A causal model of turnover for nurses. Academy of Management Journal, 24: 543–565.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Pringle J. K., Mallon M. 2003. Challenges for the boundaryless career odyssey. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14: 839–853. Google Scholar
  • Ragins B. R., Dutton J. E. 2007. Positive relationships at work: An introduction and invitation. In Dutton J. E.Ragins B. R. (Eds.), Exploring positive relationships at work: Building a theoretical and research foundation: 3–25. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Google Scholar
  • Rose S. 1995. Declining job security and the professionalization of opportunity. Research Report No. 95–104. Washington, DC: National Commission for Employment Policy. Google Scholar
  • Rothwell A., Arnold J. 2007. Self-perceived employability: Development and validation of a scale. Personnel Review, 36: 23–41. Google Scholar
  • Rothwell A., Herbert I., Rothwell F. 2008. Self-perceived employability: Construction and initial validation of a scale for university students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73: 1–12. Google Scholar
  • Saks A. M., Ashforth B. E. 1999. Change in job search behaviors and employment outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56: 277–287. Google Scholar
  • Saks A. M., Ashforth B. E. 2002. Is job search related to employment quality? It all depends on fit. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 646–654. Google Scholar
  • Saks A. M., Cote S. 2006. Job search. In Greenhaus J. H.Callanan G. A. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development, vol. 1: 440–442. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Salamin A., Hom P. W. 2005. In search of the elusive U-shaped performance-turnover relationship: Are high performing Swiss bankers more liable to quit? Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 1204–1216. Google Scholar
  • Schein E. H. 1985. Career anchors. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar
  • Schmidt S. R. 1999. Long-run trends in workers' beliefs about their own job security: Evidence from the General Social Survey. Journal of Labor Economics, 17: 127–141. Google Scholar
  • Schwab D. P. 1991. Contextual variables in employee performance-turnover relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 34: 966–975.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Seibert S. E., Kraimer M. L., Crant J. M. 2001. What do proactive people do? A longitudinal model linking proactive personality and career success. Personnel Psychology, 54: 845–874. Google Scholar
  • Seibert S. E., Kraimer M. L., Liden R. C. 2001. A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 219–237.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Singh R. 2006. Self-awareness. In Greenhaus J. H.Callanan G. A. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development: 709–713. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Google Scholar
  • Singh R., Greenhaus J. H. 2004. The relation between career decision-making strategies and person-job fit: A study of job changers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64: 198–221. Google Scholar
  • Singh R., Ragins B. R., Tharenou P. 2009. What matters most? The relative role of mentoring and career capital in career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75: 56–67. Google Scholar
  • Smith V. 2010. Review article: Enhancing employability: Human, cultural, and social capital in an era of turbulent unpredictability. Human Relations, 63: 279–303. Google Scholar
  • Smithson J., Lewis S. 2000. Is job insecurity changing the psychological contract? Personnel Review, 29: 680–702. Google Scholar
  • Snyder C. R., Sympson S., Ybasco F., Borders T., Babyak M., Higgins R. 1996. Development and validation of the state of hope scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70: 321–355. Google Scholar
  • Sparrowe R. T., Liden R. C., Wayne S. J., Kraimer M. L. 2001. Social exchange processes, social structure, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 316–325.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Steel R. P. 1996. Labor market dimensions as predictors of the reenlistment decisions of military personnel. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81: 421–428. Google Scholar
  • Steel R. P. 2002. Turnover theory at the empirical interface: Problems of fit and function. Academy of Management Review, 27: 346–360.AbstractGoogle Scholar
  • Steel R. P., Griffeth R. W. 1989. The elusive relationship between perceived employment opportunity and turnover behavior: A methodological or conceptual artifact? Journal of Applied Psychology, 74: 846–854. Google Scholar
  • Steel R. P., Lounsbury J. W. 2009. Turnover process models: Review and synthesis of a conceptual literature. Human Resource Management Review, 19: 271–282. Google Scholar
  • Steel R. P., Ovalle N. K. 1984. A review and meta-analysis of research on the relationship between behavioral intentions and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69: 673–686. Google Scholar
  • Steinbruner. 1974. The cybernetic theory of decision: New dimensions of political analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
  • Stewart J. 2002. Recent trends in job stability and job security: Evidence from the March CPS. Working paper No. 356, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  • Stumpf S. A., Colarelli S. M., Hartman K. 1983. Development of the career exploration survey (CES). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 22: 191–226. Google Scholar
  • Sturman M. C., Trevor C. O. 2001. The implications of linking the dynamic performance and turnover literatures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86: 684–696. Google Scholar
  • Sturges J., Guest D., Conway N., Mackenzie Davey K. 2002. A longitudinal study of the relationship between career management and organizational commitment among graduates in the first ten years of work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23: 731–748. Google Scholar
  • Sullivan S. E., Arthur M. B. 2006. The evolution of the boundaryless career concept: Examining physical and psychological mobility. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69: 19–29. Google Scholar
  • Sullivan S. E., Baruch Y. 2009. Advances in career theory and research: A critical review and agenda for future exploration. Journal of Management, 35: 1542–1571. Google Scholar
  • Swider B. W., Boswell W. R., Zimmerman R. D. In press. Examining the job search-turnover relationship: The role of embeddedness, job satisfaction, and available alternatives. Journal of Applied Psychology. Google Scholar
  • Tett R. P., Meyer J. P. 1993. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46: 259–290. Google Scholar
  • Trevor C. O. 2001. Interactions among actual ease-of-movement determinants and job satisfaction in the prediction of voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 621–638.LinkGoogle Scholar
  • Trevor C. O., Gerhart B., Boudreau J. W. 1997. Voluntary turnover and job performance: Curvilinearity and the moderating influences of salary growth and promotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82: 44–61. Google Scholar
  • Tulgan R. 2000. Managing Generation X: How to bring out the best in young talent. New York: Norton. Google Scholar
  • Uchitelle L. 2006. The disposable American: Layoffs and their consequences. New York: Knopf. Google Scholar
  • U.S. Department of Labor. 2010. Job openings and labor turnover survey. Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. Accessed at http://www.bls.gov/jlt/. Google Scholar
  • Valletta R. G. 1998. Declining job security. Working paper No. 98–02, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Google Scholar
  • Van Dam K. 2004. Antecedents and consequences of employability orientation. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 13: 29–51. Google Scholar
  • Van der Heijde C. M., Van der Heijden B. I. J. M. 2006. A competence-based and multidimensional operationalization and measurement of employability. Human Resource Management, 45: 449–476. Google Scholar
  • Van der Heijden B. I. J. M, de Lange A. H., Demerouti E., Van der Heijde C. M. 2009. Age effects of the employability-career success relationship. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74: 156–164. Google Scholar
  • Van Emmerik H. I. J. 2004. The more you can get the better: Mentoring constellations and intrinsic career success. Career Development International, 9: 578–594. Google Scholar
  • Vroom V. H. 1964, Work and motivation. New York: Wiley. Google Scholar
  • Waldman M. 1990. Up-or-out contracts: A signaling perspective. Journal of Labor Economics, 8: 230–250. Google Scholar
  • Wanberg C. R., Hough L. M., Song Z. 2002. Predictive validity of a multidisciplinary model of reemployment success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 1100–1120. Google Scholar
  • Waterman R. H., Waterman J. A., Collard B. A. 1994. Toward a career resilient workforce. Harvard Business Review, 72 (4): 87–95. Google Scholar
  • Wittekind A., Raeder S., Grote G. 2010. A longitudinal study of determinants of perceived employability. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31: 566–586. Google Scholar
  • Wolff H., Moser K. 2009. Effects of networking on career success: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94: 196–206. Google Scholar
  • Wrzesniewski A., McCauley C. R., Rosin P., Schwartz B. 1997. Jobs, careers, and callings: People's relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31: 21–33. Google Scholar
  • Zicik J., Klehe U. 2006. Job loss as a blessing in disguise: The role of career exploration and career planning in predicting reemployment quality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69: 391–409. Google Scholar
  • Zicik J., Saks A. M. 2009. Job search and social cognitive theory: The role of career-relevant activities. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74: 117–127. Google Scholar